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再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第1张图片
© Theo Peekstok

Recycled Materials journey through Factories and Collecting Facilities

由专筑网K&C,小R编译

在建筑领域中,作为可替代方案的回收再利用材料愈发热门。在大多数情况下,回收再利用材料都能给项目的采购和施工带来经济效益,因此是传统建筑材料的绝佳替代品。除了节省原材料成本外,开设回收机构或加工厂(包含收集、处理等工序)还能为当地提供不少工作机会。回收过程也是降低能耗的过程,有些工厂能够应用特定的材料转化技术,例如将热能转化为电能。

然而,要实现收集、处理和加工的循环,那么就需要一座精心设计且构思合理的健康建筑。这种细致而苛刻的过程非常需要安全的环境。如果生产可持续材料的过程会对工人的健康和环境造成更大危害,那么推广可持续的建筑材料又有什么意义呢?

Recycled and reused materials continue to grow as a more attractive alternative in the construction field. They are at most times a coveted sustainable substitute to conventional building materials, offering a financially resourceful solution when appropriately sourced and implemented. Aside from saving up on raw material cost, establishing recycling facilities or factories might present a good opportunity to generate jobs within a local setting (collecting, handling…). The recycling process might also be used as a gateway to lower energy consumption, with some plants eventually generating their own power through specific material transformation techniques (Heat generated power).
The collecting, processing and reprocessing cycles would however require a well-designed, and properly conceived healthy building. It is important to facilitate the meticulous and demanding processes in a safe environment. For what is the use of promoting sustainable construction means and materials if the factory that produces them is even more harmful to the workers' health and damaging to the environment?

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第2张图片
© Theo Peekstok

实际上,可以设置不同类型的回收设施来收集和存储废料,或将其分类为不同类型的材料来进行分配。还有些工厂会通过生物降解过程来制造肥料或土壤改良剂,还能通过其他各种手段将废料转化为再生材料,然后将其应用于建筑的建造过程。有些废料甚至可以用于发电,即通过燃烧不可回收材料来发电。


1.回收转运站

此类设施需要进行合理的功能分区和空间布局,将回收不同类型材料的各个区域分隔开,避免混淆。由于废料需要从回收转运站运输到另外的设施,再进行下一步处理,所以设计还必须考虑到配套的交通和物流。

There are in fact different types of Recycling facilities that could be set up for waste collection and storage or be used to sort the materials into different types for redistribution. Other factories are also charged to transform the waste through biological processes to create fertilizer / soil conditioners, or through other varied means into raw materials that would then be used to generate new building elements among other things. Some can even be power plants, using heat to treat non-recyclable materials and generate power.

1.Collection and Transfer Stations  
These facilities require a good zoning and spatial segmentation to separate various areas meant for different types of material, making sure they do not get mixed. A proper vehicular and materials flow must also be accounted for in the design since elements from the transfer station are transported to other types of facilities for further processing.


Urban Solid Waste Collection Central / Vaillo + Irigaray

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第3张图片
Courtesy of Vaillo + Irigaray

“覆盖着建筑门窗及外墙的曲面薄片由同种材料制作而成,这种2.5mx1.5m规格的板料是回收加工后的绿色铝罐所能达到的最薄尺寸。”

"The contorted volumetry flakes wrapped with the same material, same construction system, -facades and deck- large format sheets (2.5mx1.5m) are composed of leaf-lacquered aluminum can recycling, minimum thickness."



Sunset Park Material Recovery Facility / Selldorf Architects

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第4张图片
© Nikolas Koenig

“日落公园材料回收所通过船运可回收物这一举措为环境保护做出了重大贡献。船运可最大程度地减少卡车的出行量,每年可以减少240,000英里的公路物流里程。回收厂的建造基本由可回收材料主导,场地的铺装使用了再生玻璃、沥青和岩石加工而成的复合材料,这些材料回收自第二大道地铁站建设工程,建筑由再生钢建造而成,广场则使用了回收玻璃。”

"The facility makes a major environmental contribution by delivering recyclables by barge - a strategy which minimizes the distance collection trucks must travel and eliminates 240,000 miles of annual vehicle travel from roadways. Recycled materials are used throughout: site fill is made from a composite of recycled glass, asphalt, and rock reclaimed from the Second Avenue subway construction; buildings are made from recycled steel; and plazas are finished with recycled glass. "




2.加工厂

加工厂主要负责将混杂的回收物分类为危险材料、非目标材料、不可回收废料,以及对可回收废料进行初步加工。现阶段加工厂最关键的设计要素是合理的区域划分和良好的通风条件。

3.后处理厂

后处理厂将收集到的可回收材料转变成新东西。因此在设计时,应考虑让其容纳必备的机械生产线,这些机械生产线既可以将材料直接转换为新产品,又可以转换回能够为由制造商使用的原材料,另外应考虑为建筑配备更多的人工冷却系统。

2. Processing facilities
These facilities also take care of separating mixed recyclables into hazardous material, non-targeted material, non-recyclable waste as well as initial processing of materials meant for reprocessing or treatment. Area division and good hybrid ventilation are also key design elements at this stage.

3.  Reprocessing facilities
The reprocessing factories transform the collected recyclable materials into something new. The design should therefore be able to accommodate the required machinery lines that would either transform the materials directly into new products or back into a raw material which can then be used by manufacturers. This includes more artificial cooling systems.


Milieustraat Recycling Center / Groosman


再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第5张图片
© Theo Peekstok

“现有大厅的结构材料和铺路材料完全得以重新使用。通过IFD(工业、简易拆装)建设,新建筑在未来可重复使用。”

"The structure of the existing halls and the paving material have been completely reused. Through IFD (Industrial, Flexible and Detachable) construction, the buildings will be reusable in the future."



Metal Recycling Plant / dekleva gregoric architects

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第6张图片
© Miran Kambič

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第7张图片
© Matevz Paternoster

“我们将材料清楚地划分为通用类、可多次灵活使用类、不可多次灵活使用类,通过判断其活性来进行环境友好型回收。因此在这样的前提下,巨大的混凝土高楼、墙体和附加的混凝土服务建筑是当前厂区的核心,不过,既然位于工业区内,要对它们进行更新和改动也是很轻松的事情。”

"We clearly divided the generic base, flexible for multiple-use and the very specific, non-flexible, therefore ephemeral and recycle friendly by its activity. In these terms the huge concrete plateau with a definition wall and attached concrete service building define the core of the current production, however they easily allow for change of program within the industrial zone. "



Smestad Recycling Center / Longva arkitekter

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第8张图片
© Ivan Brodey

“该项目在环境保护方面有远大的抱负。建筑由低能耗材料建成。表皮使用了混凝土、砖块、木胶合板和耐候钢制成的多孔金属板。整个屋顶覆满了植物,由人工调节系统控制的建筑部分也达到了欧盟能源标签A级(黄色)的标准。”

"The project has high environmental ambitions. The building is constructed from low impact materials Facades are of concrete, brick, laminated wood and expanded metal of weathering steel. The entire roof is planted with sedum. The climatized part of the building achieves an EU energy label A (yellow). "



4.处理厂

处理厂通过使用燃烧或生物过程来减少废料数量,转化的结果为电力或者肥料等。因此在设计时必须考虑安全性。

4. Treatment facilities
This process decreases the quantity of input material either by using heat or biological processes. The result can be power, fertilizers etc. In this case, safety is an essential consideration while working on the design.


Bozen Waste to Energy Plant / Cl & aa Architects

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第9张图片
© Alessandra Chemollo

“CI&aa建筑事务所的愿景是通过设计一座有聚合力的建筑减少工业厂房对周围环境的视觉冲击,运用线条和色彩勾勒出天际线,实现自然与人工元素间的平衡,使景观更好地发挥作用。”

请注意,可以使用不同功能与材料的设施分类和标准要求作为基准,保证环境的安全性。应时刻牢记有些处理过程可能是可能有毒有害的,未经处理的回收过程可能将高污染物释放到大气中,还可能会耗损能源。

"Cl & aa intended to reduce the visual impact of an industrial plant designing a cohesive building, whose lines and colors can evoke the surrounding skyline, in balance between natural and artificial that means landscape in its better meaning."
Note that different facilities classifications (according to functions and accepted materials) and standard requirements are available as benchmarks to insure a safe environment. It is important to keep in mind that the procedures can be toxic and harmful. An unmitigated recycling process might allow high levels of pollutants to be released into the atmosphere in addition to unnecessary increase energy consumption.

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第10张图片
Courtesy of Vaillo + Irigaray

因此,从一开始就必须有一个良好并符合标准的设计方案来辅助高性能的工厂建筑。也就是说团队中所有成员都应参与其中,包括建筑师、MEP工程师、机械专家、环境工程师,甚至本地社区成员。具体的布局和特殊的组织应配合工厂的性质来设计,区域隔离和良好的通风也是必须考虑的部分。

回收、处理、加工工厂其实是回收建筑材料的先驱,因为厂区中的某些建筑和场地的建造与回收再利用过程具有相同的元素,同时园区的有些建筑还十分美观耐看,所以设计中还应考虑工厂在周围环境中的视觉影响。

Therefore, having a good, standard abiding design from the very start is imperative to create a high-performance factory building. This also means engaging all members of the team including the architect, MEP engineers, machines specialists, environmental engineers and even local community members. Specific layouts and special organization should be adapted to the required tasks. Areas containment and well-devised ventilation are also necessary items to account for.
Factories and handling facilities can even be the first promoters for recycled construction material use since some of them are built from the same elements they produce or process for re-use; all while remaining aesthetically pleasing. The visual impact of the factories within their surrounding should also be considered in the design.

再生材料的旅程——从回收到加工第11张图片
© Nikolas Koenig

*引用的项目文本摘自建筑事务所对项目的描述。

* The quoted texts are excerpts from the archived descriptions of each project, previously sent by the architects.

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